Training distance runners
The 5000 meter run. The world Cup 2011
During the preparation of the athlete specializing in long distances, you need each week cycle be divided into four types of cross-country training: remote training, training on the level of the threshold, interval training and speed training.
Each exercise has a unique effect on the body of a runner. Properly coordinated running load in the overall training program will help develop
a well-functioning, controlled by a regulatory mechanism of the impact of the runner.
Consider these types of cross-country training:
REMOTE TRAINING takes 70 to 80 per cent of the total and is considered a native of the training process.
Jogging 30-40 minutes in a pace of about 70% of maximum heart rate. In other words, each kilometer run for approximately a minute and a half slower than in the competitive mode at a distance of 5000 m. This speed has a positive effect on the body the following physiological aspects:
— accelerates the growth of capillaries in the working muscles, increases the capacity of blood flow to the muscle cells that are directly involved in the running process;
— strengthens the heart muscle, resulting in increases amount of blood, «pumped» in the body during each contraction;
— increases intracellular supply of nutrients in the form of glucose and oxygen, which are involved in energy production. The more energy generates the cell, the more work it can perform.
All these benefits allow the body to consume more oxygen during exercise. The maximum effect of this exercise is not dependent on the running speed and time spent running. Too high running speed reduces time for cellular adaptation, which causes premature fatigue and reduces the effectiveness of your workout.
Vivian Cheruiyot – time world champion at 5000M – 10000m
TRAINING AT THE LEVEL OF THE THRESHOLD. The main task is repetitive running at distances from 400 to 1600 m with a short (up to 60 sec) intervals for rest, with an intensity of approximately 90% of the maximum heart rate. The workout should take no more than 8-10 percent of the total mileage, low — 5 km per week. Such training improves endurance runner by increasing the level of lactate threshold.
Optimum rate of overcoming cross-country segments, it is relatively easy to install and is controlled by a stopwatch. The rate is set depending on what, approximately, maximum result in the women’s 5,000 m runner ready at the moment.
Take the «base» — 20 minutes. This degree of readiness of an athlete these results correspond to intervals: 400m — for MS; 600 m — for MS; 800 m — for MS; 1000 m — for MS; 1,200 m — for MS; 1600 m-MS.
When the athlete is ready for the second level «base» (14.00), then set the speed on the sections shall be: 400 m — for MS; 600 m-for MS; 800 m — for MS; 1000 m — for MS; 1,200 m — for MS; 1600 m — for MS.
Training at the level of the threshold and raising the threshold to an optimal borders make runners less susceptible to the accumulation of lactic acid and promotes the development of speed and endurance. The length of the repeating segments gradually increases, as the degree of readiness of the athlete. To increase the intensity of these workouts to once every 4-6 weeks, depending on the degree of adaptation of the athlete.
One type of exercise can serve as a so-called tempo running 15-20 minutes, with the intensity to 90% of maximum heart rate. Such training also contribute to concentration and to control its speed on the track.
INTERVAL TRAINING. Main task: run at recurring intervals with an intensity that is equal to the maximum level pulse. In other words, the rate should be equal competition, and will not change during exercise. For example, if the level of preparedness of an athlete in the competitive mode at a distance of 5000 m is equal to 17,30, interval training his speed on the stretch of 400 m will be MS, 800 m — MS etc.
The break between segments shall be not less than, the time spent on overcoming the cut, and by the end of training be increased to prevent the accumulation in the muscles of excess lactic acid.
Interval training significantly increase the level of efficiency thanks to the increased usage of oxygen during the run. Also, it contributes to some positive changes in the buffer system of the blood, which helps the body to operate at near maximum capacity, even after the concentration of lactic acid reaches a high enough level.
The amount of interval training in the weekly volume — no more than 8-10% of the total.
World champion and European record holder at 5000M
HIGH-SPEED TRAINING . My main task is to overcome stretches for 400 meters with a speed of 8-10 with faster maximum at a distance of 5000 m. the rest Intervals increase to 4-5 minutes per minute of running.
This type of training not only develops high-speed characteristics, but also positively affects the smooth muscles. He also contributes two very significant physiological changes in the body. The first change occurs in the buffer system of the blood that gives the body the ability to work at the maximum level over a long period of time, even if the concentration of lactic acid reaches a high level. Second — a strong stimulation of fast twitch muscle fibers, which begin to work at maximum effort, for example, finishing spurts at the end of the racing distance.
Each person is genetically programmed to a specific set of white (fast twitch) and red (melanochromis) muscle fibers. The first work in sprinting, jumping, etc. Second «» in the prolonged run, in ski racing. The ratio of these fibers depends on the type of the athlete, his inclination towards a certain discipline. In humans, gifted with the abilities of a long distance runner, melanochromis fibers in the body more. And for fast twitch needs constant development. This need speed training.
In the training process, this type of training should not exceed 5 percent of the total.
As noticed, in the methodical recommendations virtually no indication of a clear scope of work and loads. In this case you can add one: the introduction presents the types of training in the overall training cycle remains the prerogative of the coach. Assigning volume loads, the coach must take into account the individual characteristics of each of the wards, their genetic abilities, physical and psychological capabilities. Applying the recommended training tools, do not forget about constant monitoring, and that the volume should be dosed depending on the condition of the runner. It must be remembered that all of these types of training are reinforced in nature, and the load must be compensated by days of rest.