What you need to know before you get tested
Regular screening is not very popular, but they are necessary. When evaluating the results of laboratory studies, the physician is faced with a number of factors. It needs to consider the age, sex, physiological state (pregnancy, childbirth, menstrual cycle, menopause). However, there are factors that depend only on the patient, which may affect the laboratory results. Consider the most important of them.
To donate blood to conduct any analysis should be on an empty stomach, i.e. in 10-12 hours after the last meal (this time is required for digestion, absorption and assimilation of food by the body’s cells). This is a very important condition for the evaluation of metabolic processes.
Also, if you donate blood after meals, it will contain large amounts of fat (here the doctor is not fooled!), and the study will either be impossible or else the results will be heavily distorted. And this may lead to improper, unreasonable treatment.
If you are dieting or starving, the body is forced to use as energy glucose from food, and fatty acids that are found in adipose tissue (after all, that is why we lose weight).
But it also increases the breakdown of proteins, resulting in decreased skin elasticity, the appearance of wrinkles. Nails and hair become dull and brittle, the person looks older than his years.
With prolonged starvation destroys the protein structure of the cells of all organs. But if the fasting lasts more than 40 days, there are irreversible consequences, begin to break down tissues and organs, the person may die.
All this is reflected in the metabolic rate. So, when fasting for more than 48 hours may increase the level of bilirubin in the blood, fasting for more than 72 hours there is a decrease in the glucose concentration to the lower limit of normal, elevated levels of free fatty acids, urea.
Eating fatty foods can lead to increased levels of potassium, triacylglycerides (TAG), alkaline phosphatase.
Excessive protein load (meat, protein diet increases the content of ammonia and urea, which significantly increases the load on the liver and kidneys due to the elimination of these substances from the body, leads to the appearance of urates in the urine. Especially, this diet is contraindicated in patients with disorders of the liver and kidneys.
Bananas, pineapples, tomatoes, avocados are rich in serotonin. Serotonin calms the nervous system, however, in the study of urine for 5-oxindoles acid necessary to eliminate these foods for three days before testing, otherwise the results will be inflated.
Drinking coffee, strong tea, Cola, kodeinsoderjaschie beverages causes:
the increase in the blood and urine catecholamines, free fatty acids, glucose, cortisol, carboxyhemoglobin, number of erythrocytes and leukocytes; reduced glucose tolerance; increases the secretion of gastric juice, hydrochloric acid, pepsin; leads to increased urine output, decreased the relative density of urine.
Alcohol increases the concentration of lactate, uric acid and triacylglyceride and reduces the level of glucose in the blood.
Smokers have elevated levels of C-reactive protein, which proves the presence of chronic inflammation in the bronchopulmonary system. In addition, Smoking leads to increased binding of hemoglobin with carbon monoxide, which makes it impossible to deliver oxygen to organs and tissues.
To cope with this, the immune system increases the number and size of red blood cells, the hemoglobin level. Therefore, a high level of hemoglobin and red blood cells in smokers is not an indicator of health. This body cry for help!
Smoking promotes atherosclerosis (increased LDL), falsely overstates the content of blood glucose, promotes the development of neoplastic processes (increases the content of cancer-embryonic antigen).
On the eve of the laboratory research necessary to reduce physical exertion. After one hour of intense exercise the activity of some enzymes (aldolase, CPK, AST, LDH) may remain elevated for days.
Physical exercise lead to an increase in blood levels of sex hormones, including male sex hormones (testosterone, Androstenedione). This leads to increased muscle mass and increases the amount of luteinizing hormone in the blood.
Some medicines can have a significant impact on the results of laboratory tests. Oral contraceptives, diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide) falsely raise the blood calcium level.
Paracetamol, ascorbic acid, furosemide overstate the level of glucose. The hepatitis b vaccine, oral contraceptives, vitamin a increases the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Antibacterial drugs, aspirin, indomethacin, reduce the level of blood hemoglobin.
Therefore, if possible, the medication before blood tests should be abolished, or need to inform the doctor about medication.
It is unacceptable when drawing blood from a vein to work with the hand (to compress and decompress the fist), and use a tourniquet for more than 2 minutes. This leads to a false increase in the concentration of bilirubin, coagulation factors, blood cells, hormones, cholesterol, calcium.
To obtain reliable results of laboratory tests should:
before the examination to refrain from physical exertion, stress and alcohol intake, not Smoking for at least hours before blood sampling; 2-3 days before the examination necessary to limit the intake of fatty, fried and spicy foods; do not eat after dinner (and dinner to make easy): you can only drink water and not a drop of juice, tea, coffee (especially with sugar); before the tests to go to bed at a normal time and get up no later than an hour before blood sampling.
It is recommended to donate blood in the early morning hours, and to therapeutic and diagnostic procedures (ultrasound, massage, physiotherapy, x-ray studies).
Remember that for a correct evaluation and comparison of the results of laboratory tests recommended them at the same time in the same laboratory.
It is important to inform your doctor about medications taken, even if it is only oral contraceptives.